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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

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SECTION XXIIa.—General mew.—It is impossible to survey the iron industry of the United States as thoroughly as those of the nations of Europe will be discussed, for our country is entirely out of proportion to the scale by which other countries are considered. For instance, the State of New York is not only left undivided in current statistics of the iron industry, but is combined with New Jersey, and yet the iron and steel business of the State is made up of two parts, entirely independent of each other. In the northeast are the mines of Lake Champlain, and in the extreme west the furnaces of Buffalo smelting Lake Superior ores. These two districts have no relation to each other and are 250 miles apart; farther than the mines of the Cleveland district from the coal of Cardiff; as far as from Prague, in Bohemia, to Gleiwitz, in Silesia. In the same way Virginia, is considered as a whole, although it covers an area as great as England; it is not regarded as a great center of pig-iron -production, but it makes- half as much as Belgium and nearly double the output of Aachen and Ilsede combined.
The distinctive feature of the American iron industry is the great distance through which raw material must be carried. In Europe a haul of 200 miles is long and the cost excessive, while in America it is not unusual at all. Coal and coke are carried as far as this in several instances, while Chicago draws its furnace fuel from 500 to 600 miles. In the publication of the American Iron and Steel Association a magnificent disregard of distance combinea the outputs of Colorado and Missouri, which are 800 miles apart; as fax as from Paris to Warsaw. The statistical reports of America axe quite full in respect to the product of pig-iron, but the data on steel are unsatisfactory owing to the desire for secrecy on the part of some manufacturers. Table XXII-B gives the production of steel from 1867, while Table XXII-C shows the different kinds of